The impact of Parenting Styles and Academic Performance of Primary School Pupils
1.1 Background of the study
During socialization, education plays cardinal role in educating and transmitting cultural heritage of the child from one generation to another. It has been well known that students with high academic performance are important assets to any country; while low academic performance may cause negative consequence such as street, hopelessness, delinquency, psychopathology, and substance abuse.(Ekpo, 2009).Factors that influence the academic performance. Among several factors that affects academic performance, parenting style is one of the most important factor, because of the relationship between parenting styles that help boosting the academic outcomes of adolescents. They explored various aspects of parenting style which help in the development of young children, especially the school related outcomes.
Being role models, parents play significant role in the child development. Family environment is also one of the factors in children’s cognitive, emotional, social and behavioral competence. (Nsien, 2012).
Consequently, family is the fundamental and important structure of the society that has an important role in one’s life and in the society. The importance of 5the family as a social structure is something unmistakable. Although affected by society and peers, children are more influenced by the family. The influence of the family on the child and its roles in the creativity, cultural, social and moral aspects are very great and important. School is a training center to develop pupils into efficient social beings and to train them to further education progressive members of the society (Sidhu, 2002). According to Umuana (2010) school is a creation of community and pupils found in schools are different homes, the home activities go a long way in determining learners’ success.
The Impact of Parenting Styles and Academic Performance of Primary School Pupils
Parenting styles can therefore, be defined as a set or system of behaviour that describes the parents and child interactions over a wide range of situations and creates an effective interaction atmosphere. Anderson (2011), parenting style is a determining style effective factor that plays an important role in children’s psychology and growth.
However, it is believed that the styles of parenting adopted in differenthomes have on children’s disposition. This caninfluence the child’s development, and can also be detrimental to his orher academic performance. Usoro (2018) defined parenting style as the emotional climate in which parent raise their children and it is characterized by dimensions of parental responsiveness and demand ingress. The role that parent play in their children life influence their academic performance. Furthermore, the parenting style used by parents has impacts on the cognitive development of their children.
According to Baumrid (2012), parenting is characterized by different ratio of balance between responsiveness and demandingness by parents in addition to physiological control exerted on the child.Baumrid (2012), further explained parental responsiveness as the extent to which parent intentionally faster individuality, self-regulation, and self-assertion by being attained supportive, and acquiescent to chuildren’s special needs and demands, while the parental demandingness can be explained as to how parents treats their children to become integrated into the whole family, this is shown by their demands of maturity, supervision of children, different disciplinary efforts and willingness to confront the chirld who disobey.
Studies on how parental values, goals skills, and attitudes are passed from one generation to the next have been debated several scholars since the seventeenth century. Recent attention has been given to examining linkages between the chirl’s home environment and the chirl’s school environment. Within these two developmental contexts, children interact with and are influenced by multiple socialization agents including their parents, teachers, and peer. The school is a creation of the community and children, and chirldren found in his schools are from homes, the home activities go a long way in determining teachers’ success.
Therefore, this study is intended to assess the influence of parenting styles and academic performance of primary school pupils in Eket L.G.A.
1.2 Statement of the study:
Education is supposed to equip the individual with the knowledge, skills, aptitude values, and attitude to enable them live a functional self-reliance in our modern complex society. This perhaps informed the Federal Republic of Nigeria in their National Policy on Education to adopt education as an instrument par excellence for effecting national development (FRN,2004).Unfortunately, over the years, there have been incessant poor academic performance among pupils in primary schools, due to the fact that some of this poor academic performance are attributed to some certain factors such as parenting styles. Base on the foregoing facts, this study is carried out to asses the influence of parenting styles and academic performance of primary school pupils in Eket L.G.A.
1.3 Purpose of the style:-
The general purpose of the this study is to examine the influence of parenting styles and academic performance of primary school pupils in Eket L.G.A. but specificant the study sought to:
- To assess the influence of authoritative parenting style on pupils’ academic performance.
- To find out how democratic parenting style influences academic performance of primary school pupils.
- To determine the influence of permissive parenting style on pupils’ academic performance in primary schools.
1.4 Research Question:
The following research questions wereput forward to guide the process of data collection and analysis in the study.
- To what extent does authoritative parenting style influence the academic performance of pupils in primary schools?
- How democratic parenting style does influences academic performance of pupils in primary schools.
- To what extent does permissive parenting style influences the academic performance of pupils in primary schools.
1.5 Research Hypothesis:
The following null hypotheses were postulated in the study.
Ho1: There is no significant influence of authoritative parenting style on academic performance of pupils in primary schools.
Ho2: There is no significant influence of democratic parenting style on academic performance of pupils in primary schools.
Ho3: There is no significant influence of permissive parenting style on academic performance of pupils in primary schools.