Single Parenting and Academic Performance of Pupils in Primary Schools
This study was carried out to examine the influence of single parenting on academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area. The population of this study consisted of 2000 pupils in the study area. Simple random sampling technique was adopted for the selection of a sample size of 200 pupils in the study. Three (3) research questions and three (3) hypotheses were postulated in the study. The design adopted for this study was survey inferential research design. The main instrument for data collection in the study was Achievement Test. Independent t-test statistical method was adopted in the process of data analysis in the study. Based on the data analysis, it was discovered that single parenthood have negative influence on academic performance of pupils in primary schools. Lastly, it was recommended that; people should discourage teenage pregnancies among people in our society.
1.1 Background to the Study
One widely held aim of education is to equip students with the knowledge, skills, attitude and competencies that enable them to render useful services to themselves and to the society. Education is viewed as an indispensable catalyst that strongly influences the development and economic fortunes of a nation and the quality of life of its people.
According to Asiabaka (2002), education is the key to national development; it provides the intellectual capability needed by man to harness the human and material resources for scientific and technological advancement. Furthermore, it is an instrument for the realization of a nation’s growth and development, because the level of a nation’s literacy determines her extent of development.
Secondary education occupies a very unique position in the educational system of Nigeria, because it is the level that determines the academic and professional career of students. Over the years, the investigations of the factors that influence academic performance of students have attracted the interest and concern of teachers, counselors, sociologists, psychologists, researchers and school administrators in Nigeria. Definitely, different factors are capable of influencing the academic performance of primary school pupils, such factors may be the students intrinsic attributes (intelligence, state of health, motivation, anxiety etc) and their environmental attributes (availability of suitable learning environment, adequacy of educational infrastructure like textbooks and well-equipped laboratories).
The home has a great influence on the students’ psychological, emotional, social and economic states. The state of the home affects the individual since the parents are the first socializing agents in an individual’s life. This is because the family background and context of a child can affect the child’s reaction to life situations; this could have subsequent effect on the child’s level of performance. Although the school is responsible for the experiences that makes up the individual’s life during school periods, yet parents and the individuals experiences at home play tremendous role in building the personality of the child and making the child what he or she is.
Divorce and separation of various kinds or death of one’s spouse, however may leave the roles in the hands of a single parent. Single parenting can be defined as a situation in which one of the two individuals involved in the conception of a child is being responsible for upbringing of a child. Single parenthood may also arise when either the male or female decides to produce and rear a child or children outside wedlock.
Single Parenting and Academic Performance of Pupils in Primary Schools
The child is morally upright and emotionally stable when the caring responsibilities are carried out by both parents. The family has a great influence on the child’s physical, mental and moral development. Single parenting has been found to be one of the major causes of the failure recorded by students at the primary school level. This is because both parents have roles to play in the training and development of the child, when such roles of training and developing the child do not complement each other, it might affect the cognitive development of the child as he or she grows.
A significant problem of single parenting that affects the academic performance of pupils is poverty. Most single parents are poor financially; hence they find it difficult to provide the needed materials, balanced meal and quality health care that are necessary for their children. The teacher at school community describe children from single parent as more hostile, aggressive, anxious, fearful, hyperactive and distractible than children from two parents families. On this basis, one is therefore, motivated to ask the question “what is the effects of single parenthood on the academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area?
1.2 Statement of Problem
Over the years, there have been incessant poor academic performance of pupils in primary schools, based on some certain observations in this study, it was basically perceived, that, the poor academic performance of pupils in primary schools is attributed to the negative influence of single parenthood.
Again, the child is not morally upright and emotionally stable when the responsibilities of both parents are handled by a single parent. Single parenting has been found to be one of the major causes of poor academic performance of pupils at the primary school level.
Inspite of the above stated problems, the major problem of this study was to examine the influence of single parenthood on academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of single parenthood on academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the difference in academic performance between pupils from single parent families and those from two-parent families?
- What is the difference in academic performance between male pupils from single parent families and those from two-parent families?
- What is the difference in academic performance between female pupils from single parent families and female pupils from two-parent families?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following research hypotheses were formulated for the study:
H01: There is no significant difference in academic performance of pupils from single parent families and those from two-parent families.
H02: There is no significant difference in academic performance of male pupils from single parent families and those from two-parent families.
H03: There is no significant difference in academic performance of female pupils from single parent families and those from two-parent families.
1.6 Significance of the Study
- This research work will give proper understanding about the effects of single parenthood on children’s academic performance; and prevent them from developing attitudes that may affect the child or children academically.
- It will also enable the government to positively manage the dangers and problems of single parenthood and find ways of curbing the dangers which has eating deep into the fabrics of our society.
- It will help the parents to know how to prevent the future occurrence of the menace of single parenthood among themselves.
- The findings of this study would be of immense benefit to the future researchers conducting the researches on related areas.