The Effects of Drug Abuse on Academic Performance of Students.
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of drug abuse on academic performance. The study was conducted in selected senior secondary schools in Ngora Town Council, Ngora district, Eastern Uganda.
The objectives of the study were; To find out the different causes perpetuations of drug abuse among students of the Ngora Girls and Ngora Parents Senior Secondary Schools; To identify the different forms of drugs abused by students of Ngora Girls and NgoraParents Senior Secondary Schools; To assess the impacts of drug abuse on academic perfoimance of the students in Ngora Girls and Ngora Parents Senior Secondary Schools and to suggest the possible strategies of curbing drug abuse among students of Ngora Girls and Ngora Parents Senior Secondary Schools.
The researcher employed the some discussions from the different authors, publications, magazines and all the other possible sources as the basic foundation of the research. The researcher employed the simple random sampling technique during the research when she selected the sample size of the research and here she employed both the qualitative and quantitative method of data collection. The findings indicated that both male and female were respondents with the percentage of 100 this is true because Ngora Girls and Ngora Parents Senior Secondary schools were both interviewed.
It also showered that the sampled size had the majority of the respondents with age brackets of 16-19 year and of course the students. The researcher used both descriptive and analytical research designs. The research designs were appropriate because data was easily analyzed using frequency counts and percentage derived from the responses obtained in the questionnaires.
From the study, it is clear that there is great demand for avoidance of drug abuse so as to save most families from break up, poverty levels, child negligence, and child school dropout. Increases chronicle diseases, leads to early marriage, low levels of education, high school drop outs, increased death rates, increased rate of ignorance, family neglect, poverty, family breakdown. In conclusion, although the problem of drugs may seem impossible to eliminate, there are concrete steps that can be taken to weaken the hold of drugs on society.
The danger from drugs is too great to ignore for us and our children.Recommendations, to address all aspects of drug abuse and its harmful consequences, research program ranges from basic studies of the addicted brain and behavior to health services research. NIDA’s research program develops prevention and treatment approaches and ensures they work in real-world settings. In this context, Government is strongly committed to developing a research portfolio that addresses the special vulnerabilities and disparities that exist.
1.1. Background of the study
A drug is any substance which when introduced in to the body alters the normal biological and psychological functioning of the body especially the central nervous system. [Myers, 2006] Drug abuse is the over indulgence in and dependence on a drug or other chemicals that are detrimental to the individual’s physical and mental health or the welfare of other‘s (Harrison 2008).
Drug abuse crosses al social boundaries, affects all ethnic groups and genders. And it has been considered a global epidemic (McCabe, Boyd & Teter 2009). Drug abuse most often begins in early adolescence because of the social economic problems and cultural practices of this age group (Kandel & Chen 1995). Across the global drug abuse has always been a major problem among the young people. Indeed, the use of drugs continues to emerge as a strategy for most youths to cope with their prevailing problems such as unemployment, neglect, sexual abuse and poor academic perfoi‘inance (NACADA, 2012).
Maithya (2009) states that drugs, properly administered, have been medicinal blessings. There is evidence that intentionally fermented alcohol existed from as early 10,000 BC when it was used in religion and woiship, for recreation, medicinal use and quenching thirst by long distance travelers. Marijuana was used as medicine from 2,737BC in china then later in the 19th century, active substances used in production of drugs like cocaine and morphine were extracted and freely prescribed by physicians for various ailments and even sold over the counter the counter until problems of addiction gradually started being recognized (Fort.
2007) According to LewinsohnRohde, and Brown (1999), drug abuse is a widespread and potentially hazardous activity, increasing risks for dependence and abuse and other adverse physical and psychosocial outcomes. Drugs abuse is a problem that countries throughout the world have had to contend with for centuries. Globally, it is estimated that in 2012, some 243 million people of the world population aged 15-64 had used an illicit drug, mainly a substance belonging to the cannabis, opiates, cocaine or amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) groups, at least once in the previous year (World Drug 2014).
According to the American National Survey on Drug Use and Health (ANSDUH 2007) an estimated 20 million Americans aged 12 or older has used an illegal drug in the past one month. This estimate represents 8% of the population aged 12 years or older. Additionally, the nonmedical use or abuse of prescription drugs including painkillers, sedatives and stimulants, is growing with an estimate of 48 million people aged 12 and older using prescription drugs for non-medical reasons.
This represents approximately 20% of the US population. According to a report by the International Narcotics Control Board (2014), over 1,000 tons of marijuana is seized by US customs represent 94% of all marijuana seized around the world in 2013. Back in 2010, law enforcement officials estimated that the US black market was worth $41 billion.
The European Drug Report (2014) has reported that Europeans are very fond of drugs. For better or worse, European has arguable been the world’s most prolific drug-consuming landmass for a very long time.
The 2014 report adds that, over 80 million people living in Europe are estimated to have used an illegal drug at some point in their lives. The numbers of people who have tried an illegal drug represent about a quarter of the adult population in the European Union. The most used illicit drug in Europe is marijuana, with 73.6 million people stating that they have tried it at some point in their lives. In the most recent years measured (2012) the report stated that 18.1 million used marijuana.
A total of 2,000 tones of marijuana and hashish were consumed in the European Union each year. The second most used drug in Europe was cocaine with 14.1 million people using it in their lifetimes. 3.1 million People used it in their life time and 1.5 million problems users.
Her oin caused 6,100 overdose deaths in 2012, while cocaine overdose caused about 500 deaths. The International Drug Policy Consortium (IDPC) estimates that 45 tones of heroin was trafficked to Africa in 2010, out of which 34 tones were consumed on the continent.
Drug Trafficking Organization exploits the low capacity of law enforcement at seaports and airports to use African countries as transit for illegal drugs from Pakistan and Gulf countries to Europe, North America and other parts of the world.
However, Africa is no longer just a transit territory for illegal drugs but also a major production area with countries like South Africa, Lesotho, morocco, and Uganda producing 25% of the marijuana produced globally (Nafula 2008)
According to Kasirye (2010) east Africa is faced with the problem of cannabis, which is only second to alcohol as the most abused drug in this region of Africa. He further states that East Africa is the biggest producer of the cannabis plant, commonly known as marijuana.
In Rwanda for instance, it was reported that in 2009 alone 2,890.179 kilograms of cannabis had been seized and 999 people arrested. In Kenya, the commonly abused drugs are alcohol, bhang, glue, Mira and psychotropic drugs. Nairobi and Coast provinces are most affected with an estimated 10,000 heroin users in Nairobi and 8,000 in Coast provinces.
Cocaine is also reported to have high acceptability rating in Nalrobi. In 2005, Tanzania police intercept 375 metric tones of cannabis, 101.5kg of heroin and 35kg of morphine, among other prohibited substances, over the past two years 11,500 people have been arrested on drug-related charges, according to Tanzania’s ant- narcotics unit (NACADA, 2012) Kasirye (2010) also adds that drug abuse in Uganda in most common among marginalized groups and the unemployed although other categories of people also abuse drugs.
also goes on to say that marijuana is mainly abused by street children and students as well as by soldiers while heroin tends to be consumed by urban and street youths. Kasirye also notes that there were 2,542 in 2008. Kasule (2011) further states that 5 to 10% of Ugandans are regular drug abusers and marijuana abusers in particular ranging from 7% to 38% between 2008-2009, 54 Ugandans were arrested on drug related offences in china of which 38 were convicted to death (kasirye 2010).
Academic performance, which is measured by attendance and grades, is one of the major goals of a school as put forward by Galiher (2006) and Darling (2005) who used GPA to measure students’ performances because their main focus was on the student performance for a particulai semester.
Further, it is academic performance that is central to the effort of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 to make schools and school districts accountable for assessing and improving student performances annually (Linn, Baker & Beterbenner 2002) further limitations in academic achievement represents the primary implication of most students receiving special education services and those limitations if left unaddressed, constrain their ability to pursue postsecondary education and well-paid employment after highs school. Although the importance of academic achievement questioned, reaching unanimity regarding its measurement has been elusive.
The measurement of academic performance, particularly for students continues to be controversial topic among policymakers, measurements experts and educators (Ahearn 2000) Elliott 1998 Johnson 2000, Koretz & Hamilton 1999, McGrew, Vander wood Thurlow & Yesseldke 1995).
Measure academic can occur at multiple levels and serve multiple purposes. For example, classioom teacher often conduct formative and summative tests to evaluate students evaluate mastery of course content and piovide grades for students and parents. State tests are designed primarily to measure progress at schools.
In particular graduation, tests are used to determine whether the student has mastered the minimum content and competencies required to a high school diploma. Each of these kinds of assessments engenders significant and accommodations (Heubert & Hauser 1999 Minnema. Thurlow, Bielinski & Scott 2001).
Although this is a time of change in the educational area, within this accountability environment, it is crucial to understand the progress of all students including those who use drugs and abuse them and the factors that contribute to their positive academic performance.
The purpose of this study is therefore to explore the effect of drug abuse on academic performance of students with a focus on the selected schools in order to provide intervening measures on how to curb and reduce the spread of the menace and suggest on how to deal with it.
1.2 Problem statement
Despite the overwhelming intervention strategies by the Government, religious organizations, non-state actors and many other keen stakeholders to curb the problem of drug and substance abuse especially among the youth, the number of school going youth being suck into drug abuse seems to be escalating ,day by day,bThe government for instance has placed education at the centre of the social pillar of vision 2030 that intents to make Uganda a middle level income country. To show its commitment it has highly subsidized secondary school education thus boosting access and retention rates in the system, all these intervention strategies have had huge cost implications on the tax payer including the opportunity cost.
Drug and substance abuse threatens and tends to derail these noble strides by demotivating the students in learning and subsequently ruining these school going children that the government intends to rely on in driving the economy to the next level. Drugs and substance abuse menace should therefore be given the attention it deserves if the intentions of this hefty investment in education e are to bare fruits. Therefore, the researcher aims at identifying the effects of drug abuse on academic performance of students in the selected senior secondary schools in Ngora Town Council, Ngora District.
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
To identify the effects of drug abuse on academic performance of students. Objectives of the study
To explore the effect of drug abuse on the academic performance of students in selected Senior Secondary Schools Ngora Town Council, Ngora District
i. To find out the different causes for perpetuation of drug abuse among students of the selected Senior Secondary Schools.
ii. To identify the different forms of drugs abused by student in selected Senior Secondary Schools.
iii. To asses impacts of drug abuse on academic performance of students in selected Senior Secondary Schools.
iv. To suggest possible strategies of curbing drug abuse among students of the selected Senior Secondary Schools.
1.4 Research questions
i. What are the causes of drugs abused by students of the selected Senior Secondary Schools?
ii. What are the forms of drug abuse among students of the selected Senior Secondary Schools?
iii. What are the impacts of drug abuse on academic performance of the selected Senior Secondary Schools?
iv. What are the measures taken to curb drug abuse among students of the selected Senior Secondary Schools?
1.5 Scope of the study
The study concentrated on the negative effects of drug abuse towards the academic performance of students in the selected Senior Secondary Schools in Ngora Town Council, Ngora District. Subject scope
The study was focused on the anti-social behavior common among contemporary society. However for precision purposes drugs abused were the major gist of the study and this was studied among teenagers in senior secondary schools. Efforts were made to understand its effects on academic performance.
The study was carried out in the selected Senior Secondary Schools in Ngora District that is to say Ngora Girls and Ngora Parents, Ngora Town Council, Eastern Uganda.
The study lasted for a period of two months, starting from July —September 2017. This period was enough for the student to collect all the required information regarding the effects of drug abuse on academic performance of students.