Instructional Materials Utilization and Effective Teaching and Learning of Business Studies
The study was conducted to examine the instructional materials utilization and effective teaching and learning of business studies in secondary school in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area two (2) research hypotheses were formulated to the study. the study employed quasi-experimental design for the controlled and experimental group. Simple random sampling technique was employed and use for study. The total sample size of 120 student was use for the study. Independent t-test of data analysis was used to analyze the data so collected. The critical t-value was less than the calculated t-value which showed that effective utilization of instructional material greatly and positive affect the teaching/ learning of business studies in secondary school in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area. based on the findings of the study, some recommendation were made which include among other that government should provide equal and adequate instructional material to school without considering the location of the school. More woke shop and in-service training should be organized to the teacher on how to improvise (where they are not available) and utilize the available instructional material to aid effective teaching /learning of business studies in secondary school.
1.1 Background to the study
Instructional materials have gained prominence in Nigerian education system due to the importance attached. As Business studies, education also examines environment and what to be done to it, instructional materials emphasize features of the environment that are most important to human survival. the impact of human activities on the natural environment is of great effect to instructional materials that are normally studies include oil, water, plants, leaves, animals, etc. which teachers can improvise in the absence of the ready-male teaching materials. The teaching of these elements is made possible with the use of proper instructional materials during Business studies classes. Successful teaching and effective teaching defend on the type of instructional materials used.
Akpan (2000) sees instructional materials as those resources whose application facilitates teaching and learning. When properly used, instructional materials help to make lesson implicit and at the same time help to transmit and disseminate the required information, concepts and ideas to the learners by appealing to their senses, and reproduction of facts learnt.
Onohua (20002) state that communication in the classroom is effectively impacted through the use of instructional materials. They help both teachers and students in the teaching and learning of Business Studies thus enhancing and performance through these effective teaching and by instructional materials. Some experimental investigations have shown that under normal conductions, incorporation of questions and instructional materials in the course of lesson delivery of the increase the amount of teaching effectiveness and learning experiences gained. The environment holds a lot of experiences that can gain to benefit ourselves. To realize this, we must know more about the environment in terms of people/environmental interaction.
Nwosu (2003) maintained that the teaching of Business studies requires the use of a wide variety of instructional materials for activities and demonstration. To the well initiated in the art of teaching, the teaching of Business studies should not pose any problem in terms of instructional materials to be used, especially in Nigeria in general and Akwa Ibom State in particular. Only few are aware of the fact that instructional materials are among the best to be use effectively and appropriately to enhance effective teaching and learning of Business studies in secondary schools.
According to Diamond (2007), instructional materials are very familiar to both the teachers and the students. They are carrying to understand and manipulate, they are easily available in whose and by improvisation, they are cheap and some can enable grown, fabricated and bought by the learners themselves. However, studies have shown that there is a chronic lack of the use of these instructional materials in the teaching of Business studies both in public and private secondary schools across the country such though instructional material abound locally, some Business studies teachers would not make use of them. Rather, some teachers would prefer to teach without instructional materials to the detriment of the learners.
But given the fact that business studies teaching and learning requires a lot of practical activities and demonstration, and the fact that teachers and the activities of demonstration in most cases, would be better done with instructional materials, why do some business studies teachers still prefer readymade instructional materials? Bajah (2004) observed that the purchase of the readymade instructional materials goes along with many difficulties including high cost, scarcity, and non user friendly and difficult maintenance; sometimes due to these problems our laboratories and resource rooms are empty of these readymade instructional materials.
Some of the problem usually given regarding the use of instructional materials to teach any subject, not only business studies, including lack of standard, lack of uniformity, poor and improper calibration and non-durability. But can these problems stop us from using our instructional materials? When we do not even have the standard equipment, improvising of these instructional materials is perhaps the only solution to obtain the much needed Business and vocational equipments in our educational instructions in order to achieve the aims and objectives of vocational education in Nigeria.
Instructional Materials Utilization and Effective Teaching and Learning of Business Studies
Herschel (2000) stated that there are good prospects in using instructional materials to teach Business studies. One of the most important prospects is the enabling opportunity it affords us to be aware of the chromic lack of indigenous funicular contents in our vocational educational. If we had enough indigenous our effective teaching of Business studies with high level of performance. Another prospect is that when awe use instructional materials to teach Business studies, the students would actually learn what is relevant to their real life and perceive their needs and to their local conditions.
Business studies can also be seen as the activity of making, buying or supplying good or services for money. This is the study that is connected with money and managing a business. According to Adeyemi and Adu (2010), it is widely accepted that Business education id one of the leading instruments for promoting economic development as it encompasses some process individuals go through to help them develop and utilize acquire knowledge, skills and attitude that are necessary for effective during. This is the reason why in all modern native, investment in Business education of the youth is considered most vital. According to Onsomu et al (2006), Business studies in secondary education is an important sub sectors of education in the preparation of human capital for development and provision of life opportunities as it provides a vital link between basic education and the word of work on one hand, and further training on the other.
Hallack (2000) emphasized that the availability and utilization of element instructional materials contribute to academic achievement which is a product of effective teaching and that in adequate of instructional materials, non-use ability of instructional materials, crowded classrooms non-availability of playing grounds and surrounding that have no aesthetic beauty can contribute to poor academic achievement and ineffective teaching/learning of Business studies in secondary schools. According to Hoop (2010), rather than distributing the limited resources available for secondary schools uniformly across schools, many governmental agencies allocate a relatively large share of available resources to a selected number of secondary schools.
Despite the importance of Business studies to man, society, country, etc. Most teachers still find it difficult in using instructional materials in teaching Business studies not regarding the positive effects of instruction materials on the process of effective teaching and learning this study will go a long way to examine the effect of instructional materials on effective teaching and learning of Business studies in secondary schools in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of problem
Effective use of instructional materials for teaching depends on the capacity of the teacher on the use of resources in the form of instructional materials and equipments. These instructional materials are necessary to study in amending conditions in finite environment. The need for a system of vocational educational in Akwa Ibom State is general recognized, but there remain complex problems about the use of instructional materials which would enhance effective teaching and learning. The non- use of instructional materials and resources to teach Business studies by some teachers in secondary schools has (created) a lot of problem for the effective teaching and learning of the subject.
First, it does not allow the students to be familiar with the instructional materials that are available around them which can be used. Second, it does not allow the students to be aware of the educational importance of some of our instructional materials. Thirdly, it takes away a sense of appreciation from the students of the significance of instructional materials. The shortage of instructional materials hinders the effective teaching and learning of Business studies. The main problem is that most teachers do not want to use the available limited instructional materials and they do not want to improvise what they do not have ready-made instructional materials, which is the main point to which much attention will be directed to in the course of the research study.
1.3 Purpose of the study
The main purpose of the study is to determine instructional utilization and effective teaching/learning of Business studies in secondary schools in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area. Specifically, the study sorts to determine:
- The difference between effective teaching/learning of business studies when instructional materials are provided without been used in secondary schools in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area
- The difference between effective teaching/learning of Business studies when instructional materials are provided and used, and effective teaching/ learning without instructional materials in secondary schools in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area.
1.4 Significance of the study
To the teachers, the study will give then more insight into the complex relationship between instructional material and some concept/topic in business studies and it will also challenge teacher to make use of instructional material to teach business studies. It will generate more awareness to government on how to provide instructional material equally and in right proportion across secondary school in the state.
It will also challenge the school principals’ to ensure that teacher make room for improvised materials from the environment where ready- made material in business studies are lacking and how to use them effectively. Finally, the study would encourage secondary students of business studies and other vocational to embrace the use of instructional material in the teaching and learning of business studies.
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
- There is no significant difference between the effective teaching/learning of business studies when instructional materials are presented and used, and effective teaching /learning of business studies when instructional materials are presented without been used in secondary schools in Nsit Ubium local government Area.
- There is no significant difference between the effective teaching /learning of business studies when instructional materials presented and used, and the effective teaching\learning of business studies without instructional materials in secondary schools in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area.