Teachers’ Motivational Strategies and Students’ Academic Performance In Agricultural
This study examined Teachers’ Motivational Strategies and Students’ Academic Performance in Agricultural Science in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area. The population of the study comprised 1409 SS1 Students in the study area. A sample size of 140 SS1 students was adopted for the study. The instrument for data collection was “ Agricultural Science Achievement Test (ASAT)”. The data collected were analyzed using Independent t-test. The results showed that Students taught by on-campus teachers performed significantly better than those taught by off-campus teachers. It was found that students in schools with furnished libraries performed significantly better than their counterparts in schools with unfurnished libraries. The result also showed that students in schools with well equipped laboratories performed significantly better than their counterpart in schools without equipped laboratories. It was recommended that, government and school administrator should endeavour to provide teachers with free and better accommodations especially those in the rural areas. This will go a long way in motivating teachers for greater job performance vis-à-vis students academic achievement. It was concluded that teachers’ motivational strategies significantly influenced students’ academic performance in Agricultural Science.
1.1 Background to the Study
Motivation is an indispensable factor in the teaching – learning process. The issues of motivation of teachers in education and the impact on academic performance are considered as an important aspect of effective teaching and learning. The impact of motivation on the job performance of a teacher cannot be undermined. As students need motivation to do well in school, the teacher should be equally motivated by the employer to give his/ her best in the teaching service.
However, for over two decades, the teachers of Nigeria under the aegis of the Nigeria union of teachers (NUT) have been consistent in their request for a separate conditions of service and salary structure and for teachers in primary and post primary schools in the country. This situation has arisen because of certain economic factors. Nakpodia (2006) maintained that in any educational arrangement, the success lies in the commitment of teacher. Therefore, the relevance of job satisfaction and motivation are very crucial to the long- term growth of any educational system around the world. They probably rank alongside professional knowledge and skills, teaching competencies, educational resources and strategies as the veritable determinants of educational success and performance.
In addition, needs satisfaction and motivation to work are very essential in the lives of teachers because they form the fundamental reason for working in life. Job satisfaction in this context is the ability of the teaching job meet teachers needs and improve their teaching performance. Accordingly, it is assumed that teachers agitations and demands are beyond the resource of the ministry of education or the Government. As a result, the government of Nigeria and the Nigerian union of teachers (NUT) are in a constant stand- off over the increase in salaries, benefit and improvement in working conditions of teachers.
It is the believe of most scholars that the success or otherwise of the teaching- learning process depends on the teacher. This is true because the teacher occupies a central position in the teaching-learning process and whatever takes place in the process revolves around him or her. Hence, teachers need motivation and encouragement from their employers in order to bring out optimal performance in students (Muheeb, 2004). The absence of basic incentive for teachers may have a resultant effect on their students academic achievement. Teachers have the biggest impact on the success and flaws of the students academic performance because their motivation is essential in helping students learn. Efficient teaching and learning will take place when there is strong motivation in terms of wages and incentive from the teachers employers.
This motivation may be aroused by either extrinsic or intrinsic stimuli both of which are important in directing and regulating the learners behavior towards attainment of the desired goals. Teachers should therefore be motivated through various ways which may include the organization of seminars and workshops, timely payment of salary and wages. Providing the required physical facilities like laboratories, residential houses, functional library and verbal encouragement. This will go a long way in motivating the teachers for optimal performance and consequently improve students academic performance in schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There is a general public outcry on the poor academic performance of students in school. The general decline in students academic performance in schools has been an intractable problem in the nations educational system. The abysmal performance of students in school has not made possible for the realization of set goals and objectives in the teaching- learning process and is fast becoming a recurring decimal in our school system except something urgent is done to address it.
Researchers over the years have carried out various studies aimed at examining the factors responsible for the downward trend in students’ academic. Most of the researches carried have been in the areas of school location, teaching methods, instructional materials home background, students’ reading culture with little or no effort towards finding out the effect of teachers’ motivation on students’ academic performance in school.
It is however, incontrovertible that irrespective of the saying that teacher’s reward is in heaven, if there is limited or no motivation for teachers’ in terms of good conditions of service, their commitment to duties may drastically reduced their moral which may in turn impact negatively on students’ performance. It is against this background therefore, that this study “Teachers Motivational Strategies and Students Academic Performance in Agricultural Science in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area” becomes imperative and was carried out.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main objective of this study is to examine teachers motivational strategies and students academic performance in agricultural science in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area. The specific objective includes:
- to examine the Academic Performance in Agricultural Science between Students taught by on-campus teachers, and their counterparts taught by off-campus teachers.
- to examine the Academic Performance in Agricultural Science between Students that learn in school with well furnished libraries and their counterparts in schools with unfurnished libraries.
iii. to examine the Academic Performance in Agricultural Science between Students whose schools have well equipped laboratories and their counterparts in schools without well equipped laboratories.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were formulated in line with the specific objective of the study.
- There is no significant difference in Academic Performance in Agricultural Science between Students taught by on-campus teachers, and their counterparts taught by off-campus teachers
- There is no significant difference in Academic Performance in Agricultural Science between Students that learn in school with well furnished libraries and their counterparts in schools with unfurnished libraries.
iii. There is no significant difference in Academic Performance in Agricultural Science between Students whose schools have well equipped laboratories and their counterparts in schools without well equipped laboratories.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be immense benefits to all and sundry in the educational sector in the following ways:
- it would reflect the assessment of the relationship between Teachers Residence, Provision of functional library and well equipped laboratory and students academic performance in schools.
- it would be of benefits to school managers and other stakeholders in the education industry because understanding the relationship between teachers motivation and students academic performance will enable them motivate teachers adequately to increase their productivity.
- The recommendations of this study would go a long way in bringing to the consciousness of teachers employers basic motivational strategies for teachers that will guarantee their teaching effectiveness thereby improving students’ academic performance.
- It would add to the body of existing literature on teachers’ motivational strategies and students’ academic performance.
- Finally, the findings of this study would serve as a reference material to researchers in conducting further studies on teachers’ motivational strategies in relation to student academic performance not only in Agricultural Science but other school subjects.