Field Management Styles and Teaching Effectiveness in Physical Education
The study was designed to investigate the effect of field management styles and teaching effectiveness in Physical Education in secondary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area. Two research hypotheses were formulated in line with the specific objective of the study. All Physical Education teachers in all the public secondary schools were the population of the study. Fourteen Physical Education teachers were used as the sample size using census sampling technique. Questionnaire on Field Management Styles and Teaching Effectiveness (QFMTE) was the instrument for data collection and Pearson product moment correlational coefficient was used in analyzing the data. Findings showed that there is a significant relationship between autocratic, democratic and laisser-faire field management styles and teaching effectiveness in Physical Education in secondary schools. Based on the findings, it was recommended that teachers should employ democratic field management style for effective teaching of Physical Education in secondary schools.
1.1 Background to the Study
Education is a learning process by which individuals are made into normal human beings which possessed the culture of the society and are able to participate fully in contributing positively to community decision and execution of policies and have a good social interrelationship within his community. According to Ezewu(1983) in Ibia (2010) education is seen as the process by which persons acquire knowledge , skills and dispositions that make them more or less integrated members of their society.
This education takes place everywhere but formally, the school plays a significant role as the school provides training for the young ones with social and civil competence to make them useful adults in the society.
The author added that the schools also provide training in basic skills such as reading, writing and counting as well as providing young children opportunity for participation in healthy games and exercise. The school also affords them the opportunity to develop virtue and discourage all evil tendencies (Ibia, 2010).
Many formal organizations like secondary schools are aimed at effective and efficient management of human and material resources available for the attainment of organizational goal. The teacher is charge with lots of functions to perform in the teaching and learning process. One of the most challenging functions of the teacher of physical education field is the field management and control.
The teacher’s effectiveness in the field is assessed by his/her ability to use varied field management styles or techniques to control student towards effective and meaningful learning and participation during instruction. Meaningful teaching and learning cannot be achieved in an environment characterized by student’s control of themselves (Ibanga, 2014).
Oyira (2006) reported that the variables that measure the field learning environment include the teacher’s factors such as teaching method, management style, qualification amongst others. According to Ibanga (2014) the classroom is the meeting point or the teacher and students in other areas while in physical education is the field is the meeting point where curricular activities are implemented. Educational objectives cannot be achieved without the use of conducive teaching and learning environment. The field is characterized by a network of interpersonal relationships directed at the attainment of educational goals. The author refers to the interpersonal relationship as the reciprocal behavior that occurs between individuals such as exchange of information, exchange of expression and mutual activities. Good learning environment must be well ventilated, fully equipped with adequate facilities and good lighting system for effective teaching and learning to occur.
To Eden (2007) these resources must therefore, be manage by the teacher who assumes the position of a manager in the field. He/she must choose which field management style to adopt to achieved educational goal (autocratic, democratic or lesser-faire).
It was therefore based on this background that the studies examine field management style as it could be effective in lesson delivery in physical and health education in the field.
Field Management Styles and Teaching Effectiveness in Physical Education
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The importance of good learning environment management in the realization of educational objectives cannot be over emphasized. Teaching and learning is very embracing involving a wide range of activities such as discussing with students, demonstrating a procedure and supervising students performance in the field. Good field management enhance effective teaching and learning in school.
Unfortunately, inspite of the huge benefits of education to development poor learning environment management becomes one important issue that threatens the achievement of educational objects in Akwa Ibom State and Oruk Anam Local Government Area in particular.
Furthermore, the researcher observes that while some teachers are cordial in their relationship with the students, others are volatile in their interaction with their students the field. Bullying and indiscriminate use of corporal punishment to punish erring students. Many others too do not even borther to enforce any type of discipline on the students at all. The researcher further observed that while field autocracy generate fear and not respect of the teacher by students, democratic field management style enable students to participate in the teaching-learning process. In other words, it students-centered while autocratic style of field management is teacher-centered. This trigger the researcher to investigate whether field management style influence teaching effectiveness in physical and health education in secondary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study was to investigate field management style and teaching effectiveness in physical and health education in secondary school in Oruk Anam Local Government Area. Specifically, the study sought to;
- Investigate autocratic field management style and teaching effectiveness in physical and health education in secondary schools;
- Examine the influence of democratic field management style on teaching effectiveness in physical and health education in secondary schools; and
- Find out lesser-faire field management style and teaching effectiveness in physical and health education in secondary schools.
1.4 Significance of the Study
Findings obtained from the study will be significant in the following ways:
It will serve as a guide to educational administrators especially the inspectorate on the need to enhance inspection and supervision of teacher’s activities in secondary schools.
It will also help the school administration in providing a source of reference for them to understand the need for providing a motivating learning environment for teachers.
It will serve as a references manual for future researchers on related issues.
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following research hypotheses were formulated in line with the purpose of study to guide the study:
- Autocratic field management style does not relate significantly to the teaching effectiveness in Physical Education in Secondary Schools.
- Democratic field management style does not significantly relate with teaching effectiveness in Physical Education in secondary schools.
- There is no significant relationship between laisser-faire field management style and teaching effectiveness in Physical Education in secondary schools.