Monkey Pox and Treatment
1.1 Background To The Study
Human monkey pox was discovered in 1970 in an infant who had presented with smallpox-like eruptions in DRC. The orthopoxvirus had first been isolated from skin lesions on an imported macaque in a Danish laboratory in 1958 and was known to cause outbreaks in captive primates. Orthopoxvirus antibodies have been detected in multiple rodent and primate species in Central and West Africa but live monkey pox virus (MPXV) has only been isolated from sylvatic animals twice and the definitive reservoir remains unclear. Typically a 1-4 day febrile prodrome with headache and fatigue is followed by centrifugal development of deep well-circumscribed macular-papular, vesicular, pustular and finally crusted scab lesions. Lesions last for around 1-3 days at each stage and progress simultaneously. Unlike smallpox, lymphadenopathy may develop before or during the rash. Effective response to, and control of monkeypox outbreak will involve the participation of all stakeholders ands as such need for treatment should not be underestimated (Draine, 2009).
The spectrum of disease ranges from mild to severe and fatal. Recorded complications include vomiting and diarrhoea, conjunctivitis and corneal scarring, sepsis, encephalitis, and bronchopneumonia. Permanent pitted scarring secondary to bacterial super infection is a common long-term sequela. Miscarriage and more severe disease have been reported in pregnant women. Smallpox vaccine has been estimated to confer on the order of 85% effectiveness against monkey pox. Residual immunity from past vaccination substantially reduces the frequency and intensity of clinical signs and symptoms. Reported case fatality rates (CFR) range from 0-11% in unvaccinated individuals. Immunocompromised individuals, e.g. with untreated HIV infections, are vulnerable to more serious disease and higher risk of fatality.
Monkey Pox and Treatment
According to world health organization (WHO) report the epic of the virus has captured and dteriote the health care delivery system in various countries around the globe. Mongie (2013) was in support of the this view when he posit that, the human virus has dramatically cause hazardous effects on people. The predominant effects of the above mentioned virus is no longer a news in the nation. Monkeypox is a viral zoonotic disease (a virus transmitted to humans from animals) with symptoms in humans similar (but less severe) to those seen in the past in smallpox patients. Although smallpox was declared eradicated by the WHO in 1980, monkeypox however continues to occur sporadically in Central and West Africa.
Monkey pox outbreaks typically occur in populations who hunt, kill, handle and consume bush meat. Evidence supports primary introduction via lesion material introduced percutaneously, mucocutaneously or via respiratory droplet. Incubation period is around 7-14 days. Patients are presumed infectious from rash onset until desquamation 4 weeks later. Person-to person spread can occur via respiratory droplets, placenta, direct contact with skin abrasions or fomites.
Two main clades of human monkey pox virus (MPXV) have been identified: the West African (WA) strain and the Congo Basin (CB) strain. The latter has been associated with greater morbidity, mortality and human-to-human transmission. Virus isolation, electron microscopy and PCR are considered the gold standard techniques used to confirm MPXV infection. However, most cases in remote settings are clinically diagnosed. Chickenpox is frequently mistaken for monkey pox during monkey pox outbreaks.
There are a select number of compounds developed for smallpox that could be tested widely for treatment efficacy with monkey pox. Currently management of monkey pox cases in endemic areas is supportive. Use of vaccinia vaccine for prevention of transmission of monkey pox in at-risk individuals in endemic areas has had little focus since a fatality occurred after vaccinating an HIV-positive individual. Unknown HIV prevalence as well as difficulties accessing and safely delivering the vaccine means this method of prevention is rarely used in endemic settings.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Over the years, the outbreak of diseases has become a norm in our society because nearly every year so many diseases have been discovered in nearly every part of the globe. Humans can be infected by an animal via a bite, or by direct contact with an infected animal’s bodily fluids. The virus can also spread from human to human, by respiratory (airborne) contact or by contact with an infected person’s bodily fluids. Risk factors for transmission include sharing a bed or room, or using the same utensils as an infected person. An increased transmission risk is associated with factors involving introduction of virus to the oral mucosa.
Monkey Pox and Treatment
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to examine monkey pox; origin, causes, control and treatment. The specific objectives include:
- to examine the origin of monkey pox
- to also examine the causes and impact of monkey pox
- to also the control measures of the virus, and
- to examine the treatment of monkey pox
1.4 Definition Of Teams
Monkey pox: is an infectious disease caused by the monkey pox virus that can occur in certain animals including humans. Symptoms begin with fever, headache, muscle pains, swollen lymph nodes, and feeling tired. This is followed by a rash that forms blisters and crusts over. The time from exposure to onset of symptoms is around 10 days