Investigate Instructional Approaches and Physical and Health Education Teaching In Secondary Schools
This study examines the influence of Instructional Approaches and Physical and Health Education Teaching in Secondary Schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area. Two(2) research questions were stated to guide the study. A quasi–experimental design was used as a research design of the study. The population of the study comprised of all the 18Physical and Health Education teachers in the study areas. A sample size of 18 physical and health education teachers in the study were chosen from nine (9) public secondary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area through a purposive sampling technique. The instrument used for data collection was a structured checklist assessing the instructional approaches and physical and health education teaching in secondary schools. Simple percentage was used to analyze the data. The result of the finding revealed that there is a significant influence of teacher –centered approach on physical and health education teaching in secondary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area and it also revealed that there is a significant influence of learner – centered approach on physical and health education teaching in secondary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area. Based on the above findings, it was recommended that teacher – centered approach should be adopted in school system for effective teaching delivery and learner – centered approach should be made compulsory in schools for effective teaching delivery.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Physical and Health Education is a formal content area of study in secondary schools that is standards based and encompasses assessment based on standards and benchmark. Physical and Health Education is defined by Robinson (2010) “as a planned and standards-based program of curricula and institution designed to develop motor skills, knowledge and behaviours of healthy active living, physical fitness, sportsmanship, self-efficacy and emotional intelligence”.
As a school subject, physical and health education is focused on teaching school-aged children the science and methods of physically active and healthful living (NASPE, 2012). It is an avenue for engaging in developmentally appropriate physical activities designedfor children to develop their fitness, gross motor skills and health (wood, 2011).
To understand the component of physical and health education, a teacher need to teach in order to bring desirable change in loaners through the utilization of appropriate instructional approaches. Yadar (2014) stated that teaching is an “art” but the success of a teacher has in making his subject so simple as to make it intelligible for his students. He further stated that in order to make students learn effectively, the teacher has to adopt the right approach of teaching. Udoji (2011) opined that the selection of appropriate approaches for an instruction depends on the type of lesson whether practical or theoretical, the competence of the teacher to handle the approach and nature of instruction itself. Teacher therefore should select approaches that are appropriate to the demand of their instructions and students’ learning needs.
Instructional approach is a set of principles, beliefs or ideas about the nature of learning which is translated into the classroom. Albert (2012) opined that instructional approaches are techniques teachers use to help students become independent and strategies learners. These approaches become learning strategies when students independently select the appropriate ones and use them effectively to accomplish tasks or meet goals. A process of selecting, directing, controlling and evaluating the experiences of the learner to achieve desirable outcomes. It may be regarded as a broad and consistent manner of teaching that is guided by certain basic principles or beliefs.Nduka (2012) added that instructional approach is a stand to which a teacher use in explaining a particular subject or lesson to the learners.
Investigate Instructional Approaches and Physical and Health Education Teaching In Secondary Schools
Felder (2013) in his opinion stated that regular poor academic performance by most students in Physical Health Education is centered on ineffective instructional approaches utilizes by teachers to impact knowledgeto learners. Archibong (2010) opined that the interest which students show in Physical and Health Education and the mastery they demonstrate on completion of a course of study depend on the teaching approaches and materials used. Ali (2012) also asserted that teachers need to be in full knowledge of numerous instructional approaches thattake recognition of the magnitude of complicity of the concept to be observed.
Several factors have been advanced as affecting Physical and Health Education as well as the students’ academic achievement in Physical and Health Education, thesis include the students’ factors, teachers factors, societal factors, governmental infrastructural problem, language of instructions, instructional approaches employed by the teachers and recently students’ learning differences (Williams, 2013).
For effective teaching delivery by teachers, there is need to strive for a balance of effective teaching approaches such as teacher-centred, learn-centre, direct, indirect, constructivist, interactive, individualistic and collaborative. In Nigeria for example, teachers are familiar with some of the teaching approaches but the question is that does these teaching approaches help students’ understands the concept or enhance academic achievement in Physical and Health Education if employed by teachers in the classrooms?
Teachers can encourage autonomous learning, first by recognizing the importance of viewing students as self directed learners and second by the selection of appropriate student-centred and teacher-centred instructional approaches. The selection of these approaches should be made in consultation with individual students so that they become aware of their own learning needs and ability to meet them (Joyce, 2012).
It is ageists this background that the researcher investigated the influence of instructional approaches (Teacher-centered and learner-centered), on Physical and Health Education teaching in secondary schools in EtimEkpo Local Government Area.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The study of science instills in students’ diligence, perseverance and observation with the learners. Physical and Health Education as a science subject is an education that promote proper growth of a child and a child is learnt better by participating in create activity which inurn add values to his/her personality.
The teaching of Physical and Health Education in secondary schools which has over the years yielded ineffective teaching by the teacher and the poor academic achievement of students is of enormous consent to the people and government at large. The fact is that, students do not understand a particular subject without utilization of a proper instructional approach. Udosen (2011) stated that instructional approach is what brings the teacher in contact with the learners.
Therefore, it is necessary to know the influence of instructional approaches (teacher-centered and learner-centered) on Physical and Health Education teaching in secondary schools in EtimEkpo Local Government Area of AkwaIbom State.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this study was to investigate instructional approaches and Physical and Health Education teaching in secondary schools in EtimEkpo Local Government Area of AkwaIbom State.
Specifically, the study sought to:
- Examine the influence of teacher-centered approach on Physical and Health Education teaching in secondary schools in EtimEkpo Local Government Area.
- Determine the influence of learn-centered approach on Physical and Health Education teaching in secondary schools in EtimEkpo Local Government Area
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
Based on the above purposeof the study, the following researcher questions were formulated to guide the study:
- To what extent does teacher-centered approach influenced Physical and Health Education teaching in secondary schools in EtimEkpo Local Government Area?
- To what extent does learner-centered approach influenced Physical and Health Education teaching in secondary schools in EtimEkpo Local Government Area?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings to this study are significant to teachers/students, school management/Government and Policy-Makers/educators in the following ways:
- The findings of this study will enable teachers and students to know the right instructional approach to be used in teaching and learning of Physical and Health Education.
- The findings of this study will help schools management and the Government on the need for instructional approaches in the system.
- The findings of the study will aid policy-makers and educators to encourage the teachers on the usefulness of instructional approach in Physical and Health Education teaching.
- The findings of this study will serve as reference materials to future researcher that may investigate the same variables.
1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The researcher is aware that there are other instructional approaches like direct, indirect-guided, individualistic, collaborative, integrated, and interactive and constructivist but the study is limited to only teacher-centered and learner-centered approaches to instructions and Physical and Health Education teaching teaching in secondary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area.
The study also limited to time-constraint and inadequate fund in order to gathered all the research process of the study.
1.7 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is delimited to instructional approaches and Physical and Health Education teaching in secondary schools in EtimEkpo Local Government Area. It was conducted within the confine of the Local Government Area (EtimEkpo) and does not extend its scope to other Local Government Area. Biology Teachers in EtimEkpo Local Government Area were used for the study.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACHES: these are set of principles, beliefs or ideas about the nature of learning which is translated into the classroom.
TEACHER-CENTERED APPROACH: Here, the teacher is perceived to be the only reliable source of information in contrast to the learner-centered approach.
LEARNER-CENTERED APPROACH: Here, it is premised on the belief that the learner is also an important resource because he/she too knows something and is therefore capable of sharing something.
TEACHING: This is the art and science of helping others to grow in their knowledge and understanding.
PHYSICAL EDUCATION: This is an education that promotes proper growth of a child and a child is least better by participating in creature activity which in turn adds values to his/her personality.