Methods of Teaching and Integrated Science Performance among Students
The study was carried out to investigate methods of teaching and integrated science performance among students in secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area. Two research questions and two research hypotheses were formulated in line with the specific objectives of the study. The study adopted a quasi-experimental research design. The population of the study comprised of two thousand three hundred and twenty-four (2,324) JS 2 Integrated science students in eleven (11) public secondary schools in the study area. The simple random sampling technique was used to select 200 students as the sample size from four (4) out of eleven (11) public secondary schools in the study area. Integrated Science Achievement Test (ISAT) was used to gather data for the study.
The data obtained from the instrument was analyzed using independent t-test statistics. The results showed that there is a significant difference in the performance of students when discussion and lecture method of teaching are used in teaching of integrated science. It also revealed that there is a significant difference in the performance of students when demonstration and lecture method of teaching are used in teaching of integrated science. It was therefore recommended that integrated science teachers should use discussion and demonstration methods of teaching in teaching the subject, so as to increase students’ constructive, original and logical thinking during learning of the subject.
1.1 Background to the Study
Integrated science education was introduced to Nigeria Educational System in 1972 to serve as a beginning course in science at the Primary ad junior secondary school level. The emphasis of the programme is on the development of skills of inquiry, manipulative skills, and scientific processes as opposed to rote learning (Emeke and Odetoyinbo, 2003).
Furthermore, there has been growing public concern about state of teaching and learning of integrated science in Nigeria, Bimbola and Daniel (2009) reveals that this situation arise mainly as a result which clearly fails to illustrate the connections between classroom integrated science teaching and the environment where learners come from. Adejoh (2006) also lamented on the delivery methods, where it was stated that theory is emphasized than acquisition of practical skills, teachers teach integrated science without designing practical activities or experiment (Aworanti, 2006). Agbo and Emmanuel (2011) support this view where they explained that teaching science in our schools has been talk and chalk with no meaningful practical works. This implies that, the entire teaching process in junior secondary schools is theory based; aspect of practical activities is completely neglected.
Absence of practical activities in the teaching of integrated science makes the teaching and learning ineffective. A practical activity here means as state of being active in the classroom teaching, where pupils can / students can use their manipulative skills in learning of science concept. Bimbola and Daniels (2010) showed that large number of students’ learn very little aspect of science at the lower level of Education as a result of poor methods of instructions and lack of materials for practical activities, in this situation learning tend to be by rote and copying of notes from the chalkboard, which make learning of science concepts very difficult. And this has serious implication for the students in cognitive and psychomotor achievement in the subjects.
Methods of Teaching and Integrated Science Performance among Students
Ajeyalami (2011) summarized how practical activities are conducted in primary and secondary school levels in Nigeria as follows that; at primary school level there is little or no science taught, so little opportunities for pupils to practice what scientist do. At the junior secondary school level the teacher engages more in information giving and or lecture demonstration type of practical activities, which is highly teacher centered. At the senior secondary school level, students are not normally exposed to laboratory activities until, may be a few months before senior school certificate examination (SSCE) in most schools.
However, method of teaching is a supporting device which a teacher uses to emphasize his ideas through communication and manipulation of other resources (Brunner, 2000) . there are different methods of for effective and efficient teaching of integrated science.. these methods include; lecture, demonstration, discussion, field trip, assignment, activity, cooperative teaching methods etc. selection of appropriate methods for integrated science instruction depends on the type of lesson, whether practical or theoretical, the competence of the teacher to handle the method and the nature of instruction itself (Aina, 2000). As such, this study intends to investigate how methods of teaching influence the integrated science performance among students in secondary school in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Many Nigerian science students do not posses the depth knowledge or skills, as a result of lack of exposure into practical activities, this lead to poor performance in Science, as was evident from second international science competition where Nigerian student came last in primary science and second to the last in secondary science category among participating countries (Ogunmade, 2005). The above showed that students have been performing poor in integrated science.
Also, several studies have shown that students perform poorly in integrated science as indicated by Uzoji, (2011) revealed that, an analysis of junior secondary school certificate examinations (J.S.S.C.E) in Integrated Science in public junior secondary schools in Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau State from 2000 – 2004. Showed consistence poor performance with majority of the students scoring less than 50% in Integrated Science each year. This statistics corroborates with the result given by Akwa Ibom State ministry of Education (M.O.E) which reveals that from 2002 – 2011 only 30% of the total number of students that sat for JSSCE pass integrated Science with credit level.
This poor performance is as a result of teacher dominated method of teaching as well as non inclusion of practical activities like; demonstration, activity etc in the teaching and learning of Integrated science. It moreover, it was stressed that lecture method pattern does not produce effective learning of science. It is against this backdrop that, this study sought to find out the relationship between practical activities as a method for improving the teaching and learning of integrated, science performance among students in secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to investigate methods of teaching and integrated science performance among students in secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area. Specifically, the study seeks to;
- Determine the performance among students when discussion and lecture methods of teaching are used in teaching of integrated science.
- Examine the performance among students when demonstration and lecture methods of teaching are used in teaching of Integrated Science.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The study will be of great benefit to teachers, students, Government and researchers in man ways;
- To the teachers,. It will help them to understand the appropriate method of teaching to be employed in carrying out their duties.
- To the students, the study will help them who have all hope is not lost as they can still understand the subject by improvement in teaching methods used by their teachers.
- To the Government, the study will remind on the need to make teaching of science activity based as it was prescribed in the national policy on education, that the teaching methods to be employ in the primary and junior secondary schools should de-emphasize the memorization and regurgitation of facts.
- All the stakeholders in this study will benefit from the finds, as the learning of integrated science will be very enjoyable and the students will perform better in both internal external examination.
- Finally, the upcoming researchers and students who will like to work on this area will find this work as a reference material.
1.5 Research questions
The following research questions were asked to direct the study;
- Is there any significant difference in the performance of students when discussion and lecture methods of teaching are used in teaching of integrated science?
- Is there any significant difference in the performance of students when demonstration and lecture methods of teaching are used in teaching of Integrated Science?