Instructional Strategies And Teaching/Learning Of Agricultural Science In Secondary Schools
1.1 Background to the Study
Teaching as a profession, requires proper interplay of the teaching and learning process through the selection and application of relevant improved methods and strategies. It involves a vast array of interventional process. At the centre of which is the teacher whose role remains pivoted to the success of any educational programme.
There is no doubt that; there has been a growing concern about the quality and intellectual aims of education in Nigerian society. The school is being looked upon to bring to fruition the attainment of a society backed strongly by future citizens, who are conscious and innovatively oriented. It is because of this, that; the teaching activity of the teacher falls under the search light of the larger society (Michael, 2008). The National Policy on Education (2013) clearly recognizes the role of the teacher when it declares that “no educational system can rise above the quality of its teacher”. The policy went further to say that; teacher education shall continue to be given major emphasis in all educational planning and development.
The school system is always in a state of crises over the issue of instructional strategies employed by teachers in instructing the students. This is so because; the instructional process is what brings the teacher more often than not into contact with the learners. The teacher manipulative skills coupled with his/her professional ability determines to a very large extent the success of the teaching-learning process (Eddie, 2006). Although, there are an unending list of problems which bedevil our educational system in Nigeria, one should not be turned off by these shortcomings at the expense of the state of the art of teaching. That is, as it concerns what teachers teach and how they teach it within the limit of existing facilities.
However, what is important about methods and strategies is that; it should be carefully utilized to cater for different categories of learners. The teacher’s role as an instructional agent is therefore, a complex one as he/she must master various instructional strategies and their applicability as it affects his/her area of specialization. A thorough grasp of the subject matter by the teacher is a sine-qua-non for an efficient management of instructional strategies in the teaching/learning situation.
Essentially, the professional goal of all teachers is to enhance their effectiveness in the classroom. Effectiveness in teaching will be an illusion if the principles involved in the teaching process are not properly addressed. Teacher-training programme is often geared at developing the skills of the teacher through appropriate exposure to methods, strategies, techniques and approaches in teaching. Besides, there is always an insatiable desire by educators to direct all efforts at improving teaching effectiveness. The contention that teaching is an activity presupposes that certain skills are required for that activity to be effectively carried out (Ekanem, 2016).
Accordingly, the improvement of students’ academic performance is associated with the choice of appropriate instructional strategies by the teacher. There is no doubt therefore; that the attainment of instructional objectives as well as the desired improvement in students’ academic performance will be a mirage if the teaching strategies adopted by the teacher are inappropriate to the teaching/learning process.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Agriculture is one of the leading sectors in Akwa Ibom state and Nigeria at large. It contributes substantially to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), accounts for about one fifth of the foreign exchange earnings and supports the livelihoods of more than two thirds of the population.
Agriculture as a subject has been taught before and after independence with the overall purpose being the development of basic agricultural skills relevant to Akwa Ibom State, Etinan in Specific and the learners‟ home environment (URT, 2011). Despite the importance of Agriculture, there is evidence that the number of students taking Agriculture is low. This can be attributed to school and non-school based factors.
- Over the years, there has been public out-cry on the abysmal performance of teachers in teaching process and students in learning process.
- There is no doubt therefore, that, the teaching strategies of the teacher, who is at the centre of the teaching-learning process, could influence the process vis-à-vis academic achievement of students.
iii. The cause low teaching and learning effectiveness has been stress to the factors associated with Instructional Strategies.
- Cooperative learning, group discussion, role-playing for example has been argued to be one of the major strategies on which teaching and learning of Agriculture can be effective.
V It is against this background therefore, that, this study will investigate “Instructional strategies and teaching/learning of Agricultural Science in junior secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area” becomes importance.
1.3 Objective of the study
The general of this study is to:
- examine influence of instructional strategies on teaching/learning of Agricultural Science in secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area.
The specific objectives of the study is to:
- examine the influence of cooperative teaching/learning strategies of agricultural science in secondary schools in EtinanLocal Government Area.
- examine the influence of inquiry teaching/learning strategies of agricultural science in secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the influence of cooperative teaching/learning strategies of agricultural science in secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area?
- What is the influence of inquiry teaching/learning strategies of agricultural science in secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area?
1.5 Research hypotheses
The following null hypotheses will be postulated to guide the study;
- There is no significant influence of cooperative teaching/learning strategies of agricultural science in secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area?
- There is no significant influence of inquiry teaching/learning strategies of agricultural science in secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area?
1.6 Research hypotheses
The following alternative hypotheses will be postulated to guide the study;
- There is significant influence of cooperative teaching/learning strategies of agricultural science in secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area?
- There is significant influence of inquiry teaching/learning strategies of agricultural science in secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area?