School Environment And Students’ Academic Performance In Economics
This study examined School Environment and Students’ Academic Performance in Economics in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area. Two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. The population of study comprised 2,874 all Junior Secondary School students in the study area. A sample size of 120 JSS3 students was chosen for the study. The Instruments for data collection were School Environmental Factors and Students’ Academic Performance Questionnaire (SEFSAPQ)” and 2015 Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination Results (JSSCE) in Social Studies.
The data generated from the study were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). The results showed that there is a significant relationship between school environmental factors (location and instructional facilities) and students’ academic performance in social studies. It was concluded that school environment has a significant effect on students’ academic performance. Consequently, a numb er of recommendations were made, one of which is that government and other relevant agencies should ensure that schools are sited in a conducive environment that will guarantee effective teaching- learning process visa-vis improvement in students’ academic performance.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
- Background to the Study – – – – – 4
- Statement of the problem – – – – – – 6
- Purpose of the study – – – – – – 6
- Research Questions – – – – – – 6
- Research Hypotheses – – – – – – 7
- Significance of the Study – – – – – 8
- Delimitation of the study – – – – – – 8
- Limitation of the Study – – – – – – 8
- Definition of Terms – – – – – – 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Theoretical frame work – – – – – – 12
2.2 Concept of school environment – – – – – 14
2.3 School Location and Students’ Academic Performance- 19
2.4 Instructional Facilities and Students’
Academic Performance – – – – – – – 21
2.5 Summary of literature Reviewed – – – – – 22
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS
- Research Design – – – – – – – 23
- Area of the study – – – – – – 24
- Population of the study – – – – – 24
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques – – – – – 25
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection – – – – – 25
3.6 Validity of the Instrument – – – – – – 26
3.7 Reliability of the instrument – – – – – – 26
3.7 Method of Data Collection – – – – – 27
3.8 Method of Analysis – – – – – – – 27
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Presentation of the Result – – – – – 30
4.2 Discussion of Findings – – – – – – 31
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
- Summary – – – – – – – – 32
- Recommendations – – – – – – – 33
- Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 33
REFERENCES – – – – – – – – 35
APPENDIX (S) – – – – – – – 42
1.1 Background to the Study
The adoption of the formal school system in Nigeria dates back to the days of the colonial masters where Western Education was introduced. Western education introduced by the British around the 19th century made use of formal school system and right from then teaching began to assume a formal status from the traditional informal system. The school system exists within the larger society which has characteristics or factors that could make or mar the successful running of the school system. Accordingly, three important factors are associated with formal learning in the school.
These are the learners, the teachers and the school environments. Although, interplay of these factors are of paramount importance, the school environment seems to exert much influence on the teaching learning process. This is because what happens in the school environment may directly or indirect affect the quality of classroom instruction. According to Omoyemi (2008) the third tripod on which learning sits on is the school environment. Hence, the effects of schools factors such as location and instructional facilities among other cannot be overemphasized. The environment which a school is located contributes much to the survival of the school as no educational institution can thrive in an uncondusive environment.
School Environment And Students’ Academic Performance In Economics
The school environment, which include the classrooms, libraries, technical workshops, laboratories, teachers’ quality, school management, teaching methods, peers, etc are variables that affect students’ academic performance (Ajayi, 2009 and Oluchukwu, 20010). Hence, the school environment remains an important area that should be studied and well managed to enhance students’ academic performance. The issue of poor academic performance of students’ in Nigeria has been of much concern to the government, parents, teachers and even students’ themselves. The quality of education not only depends on the teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties, but also in the effective coordination of the school environment (Ajao 2009), School environment which include instructional spaces planning, administrative places planning, circulation spaces planning, spaces for conveniences planning, accessories planning, the teachers as well as the students’ themselves are essential in teaching-learning process. The extent to which students’ learning could be enhanced depends on their location within the school compound, the structure of their classroom, availability of instructional facilities and accessories.
It is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of the students’. Relating this study to international occurrences are the assertions of Williams, Persaud, and Turner (2008), quoting Marsden (2005), which reported that safe and orderly classroom environment (aspect of instructional space), School facilities (accessories) were significantly related to students’ academic performance in schools. The three researchers, also quoted Glassman (2011), asserting that a comfortable and caring environment among other treatments helped to contribute to students’ academic performance.
The physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on teachers, pupils, students, and the learning process. Poor lighting, noise, high levels of carbon dioxide in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures make teaching and learning difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation systems lead to poor health among students’ as well as teachers, which leads to poor performance and higher absentee rates (Frazier, 2002 Lyons, 2001; and Ostendorf, 2001). These factors can adversely affect pupils behaviour and lead to higher levels of frustration among teachers, and poor learning attitude among students’.
Environmental psychologists believe that the nature of a particular environment determines the perception of what is attributable to that environment. In the school system, we can communicate to the outside world by enhancing the nature and quality of the school environment. Apart from the influence on learners behaviour, the quality of the school environment is also an aspect of cooperate identity which helps in marketing the school. It is unfortunate that there is imbalance in government provision of learning facilities to schools in urban and rural environment.
It is obvious that the state of infrastructures in the rural areas is nothing to write home about taking into consideration the state of decay and dilapidation coupled with the low socio- economic status of the rural areas. The absence of pipe-born water, electricity, good roads networks, and health care services in the rural areas has affected the teaching- learning process negatively leading to low academic standard. Also, there is low number of qualified teachers as most teachers resent their posting to schools in the rural areas. Schools which are located in the urban areas where there are basic amenities which make life more comfortable have gained more attention by not only the teachers but also the learners .
Consequent upon the admiration gained by schools in urban environment, the urban schools become more congested and over-crowded with the influx of learners. To this end, many educators believe that the quality of instruction and the general success of teachers and students in school are deeply influenced by school environment. This therefore opens an area for investigations.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The problem that necessitated this study is the continuous decline in students’ academic performance in schools. The issue of poor academic performance of students in school has generated concern among teachers, parents, researchers and the government at large.
Observations and reports from Examination Bodies revealed that a high proportion of secondary school students continue to perform poorly in many schools subjects including social studies. This observation is linked to adequate human and materials resources in school. In fact the declining state of students academic performance in schools is assuming a higher dimension and has become increasingly worrisome.
Worried by the downward trend in the level of student’s academic performance in schools, the government and other stake holders have made concerted effort to remedy the situation, yet no significant improvement has been recorded. Several researches carried out in respect to examining the root cause of poor performance of students have been in the areas of reading culture, home background, gender, instructional materials, teaching methods etc.
However, not much effort has been made on the effect of school environment on students’ academic performance. It is against this background therefore, that this study “School Environment and Students’ Academic Performance in Economics in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area” becomes imperative.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to examine School Environment and students’ Performance in Economics in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area. The specific objectives of this study include:
- to examine the relationship between school location and Students’ Academic Performance in Economics in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area.
- to examine the relationship between school instructional facilities and Students’ Academic Performance in Economics in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area.
- Research Questions
- to what extent does school location relate to student’s academic performance in Economics?
- to what extent does school instructional facilities relate to student’s academic performance in Economics?
- Research Hypothesis
The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.
- There is no significant relationship between school location and Students’ Academic Performance in Economics in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area.
- There is no significant relationship between school instructional facilities and Students’ Academic Performance in Economics in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area
1.4 Significance of the Study
It is anticipated that the findings of this study would be of immense benefits to teachers, educational planners and policy makers, school administrators, researchers and other stake holders in the education sub-sector in the following ways:
- it would reveal if school environment account for the poor academic performance of students in Economics.
- it would make known the specific school environment factors that affect students’ academic performance in school.
- it would provide Government with research data in planning for the overall development of the school system.
- it would add to the body of existing literature on school environmental factors in relation to students’ academic performance.
- Finally it would serve as a reference material for further research on School Environment in relation to Students’ Academic Performance not only in Economics but other school subjects.